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Introduction to the Database

Preface by Lincoln Kirstein

Chronology: Life and Works
Roles Performed By Balanchine

Chronological Title List
Titles By Category

Festivals Directed By Balanchine

Itineraries Undertaken by
Balanchine's American

Research Resources

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Music: By Peter Ilyitch Tchaikovsky (Serenade in C for string orchestra, Op. 48, 1880, first three movements; arranged and reorchestrated by George Antheil).

Choreography: By George Balanchine.

Production: Scenery by Gaston Longchamp. Costumes by Jean Lurçat.

Premiere: March 1, 1935, American Ballet, Adelphi Theater, New York. Conductor: Sandor Harmati. (First performed by students of the School of American Ballet, June 10, 1934, at Woodlands, the estate of Felix Warburg, in Hartsdale [near White Plains], New York, in rehearsal costumes; then by the Producing Company of the School of American Ballet, December 8, 1934, Avery Memorial Theater, Hartford, Connecticut, with costumes by William B. Okie, Jr. "Preview" performance of the American Ballet, February 7, 1935, Bryn Mawr College).

Cast: SONATINA: Leda Anchutina, Holly Howard, Elise Reiman, Elena de Rivas, 13 women; WALTZ: Anchutina, Howard, Sylvia Giselle [Gisella Caccialanza], Helen Leitch, Annabelle Lyon, 10 women; ELEGY: Howard, Kathryn Mullowny, Heidi Vosseler, Charles Laskey, 8 women, 4 men.

Note: Created for students during the first year of the School of American Ballet, Serenade is the first work Balanchine choreographed for American dancers; it has come to be considered the signature piece of the New York City Ballet and is one of Balanchine's most widely performed works. A ballet of patterns that newly explores academic ballet technique, the choreography, as the music, has overtones of love, loss, yearning. During the inaugural season of the American Ballet, the company formed by Balanchine, Lincoln Kirstein, and Edward M. M.Warburg, Serenade was performed in repertory with Alma Mater, Errante, Reminiscence, Dreams, and Transcendence. A ballet to the same music, Fokine's Eros, was in the repertory of the Maryinsky Theater during Balanchine's youth.

Revisions: 1936, American Ballet Ensemble at the Metropolitan Opera: Male dancer added to WALTZ. 1940, Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo: Solo parts (originally divided among several dancers) reworked for single ballerina, two male dancers, and supporting female dancer (with full corps de ballet); fourth movement of the Serenade (Tema Russo [with some passages omitted]), called RUSSIAN DANCE, inserted before concluding ELEGY, danced by four demi-soloists and ballerina; Tchaikovsky's original scoring adopted, rather than Antheil's; these revisions incorporated in all subsequent stagings. Early-mid 1960s, New York City Ballet: Slight additions at beginning and extensive new material added at end of RUSSIAN DANCE, with all previous omissions in score of Tema Russo restored; 1977 [?], New York City Ballet: Three ballerinas dance 'Dark Angel' section (beginning of ELEGY) with hair loose.
Although the steps have remained basically the same, solo measures have been allocated in various ways, most frequently to three ballerinas and two male dancers (New York City Ballet variations have included, among others, five ballerinas [1950, London], four ballerinas [1953, 1955, 1958], three ballerinas [1959]).

New Productions by Balanchine Companies: From 1936, American Ballet: Performed without décor. 1941, American Ballet Caravan: Costumes by Candido Portinari. New York City Ballet: 1948, costumes uncredited, lighting by Jean Rosenthal; 1952, costumes by Karinska; 1964, lighting by Ronald Bates.

Film: 1973, RM Productions.

Video/DVD: 2004, Kultur, Balanchine (SONATINA [excerpt]); 2005, Zeitgeist Films Ballets Russes (excerpt); 2008, City Lights Media, Bringing Balanchine Back: The Historic Return to Russia (excerpts); 2014 Video Artists International, New York City Ballet in Montreal, Vol. 1 (complete recorded 1957).

See also: 193   254  

Television:    hide...
1952(BBC [London])
1956excerpts (ABC)
1957(CBC [Montreal], L'Heure du Concert)
1973(RM Productions)
1975(PBS, Great Performances, "Three by Balanchine")
1977(French television, FR3, "Balanchine à Arc et Senans")
1990(PBS, Dance in America, "Balanchine in America")
1993(BBC 2 [London])
Source notes:    hide...

 Additional music and choreography revisions information provided by Balanchine, Ruthanna Boris, Rosemary Dunleavy, Annabelle Lyon, Marie-Jeanne, Francia Russell, Suki Schorer, and Robert Greskovic. Preview information provided by Richard Buckle. Lincoln Kirstein's diaries (unpublished) suggest that Serenade, although announced and rehearsed in Hartford, was not performed there since the stage was found to be too small. However, a review of the performance there by John S. Kyes (Musical America, December 25, 1934) states that it was substituted for another ballet on the program.

Stagings:    hide...

1940   Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo

1941   American Ballet Caravan

1947   Paris Opera Ballet

1948   New York City Ballet

1952   San Francisco Ballet

1957   Royal Danish Ballet

1960   Ballett der Hamburgischen Staatsoper

1960   Netherlands Ballet (became Dutch National Ballet in 1961)

1960   Royal Swedish Ballet

1960   Teatro alla Scala (Milan)

1961   Atlanta Ballet

1961   Ballet Borealis (Minnesota)

1961   Dutch National Ballet

1962   National Ballet of Canada

1962   Paris Opera Ballet

1964   Ballet of Los Angeles

1964   National Ballet (Washington, D.C., 1963-1974)

1964   Royal Ballet

1964   Utah Civic Ballet (in 1967 became Ballet West)

1965   Ballett der Bayerischen Staatsoper (Munich)

1966   Ballett der Deutschen Oper am Rhein (Dusseldorf)

1966   Boston Ballet

1966   Tokyo Ballet Geikijo (disbanded)

1966   Ballett der Wiener Staatsoper (Vienna)

1968   Ballet la Jeunesse (California)

1968   Ballett der Bayerischen Staatsoper (Munich)

1968   Toledo Ballet Association

1969   Pennsylvania Ballet

1969   Royal Danish Ballet

1970   The Australian Ballet

1970   Den Norske Opera [Ballet] (Norway)

1970   Ballett der Deutschen Oper (Berlin)

1970   Geneva Ballet (Grand Theatre de Geneve [Ballet])

1970   Royal Swedish Ballet

1971   Dutch National Ballet

1972   Cincinnati Ballet

1974   Ballett des Stadtischen Bühnen (Frankfurt Opera)

1975   Israel Ballet

1975   Les Grands Ballets Canadiens

1975   North Carolina Dance Theatre

1975   Royal New Zealand Ballet

1976   The Australian Ballet

1976   Iranian National Ballet (disbanded)

1976   Pennsylvania Ballet

1976   Teatro dell' Opera di Roma

1977   Dutch National Ballet

1977   Hungarian National Ballet

1977   Paris Opera Ballet

1977   Ballett der Wiener Staatsoper (Vienna)

1977   Washington Ballet

1978   Croatian National Theater (Balet Hrvatsko Narodno Kazaliste [Zagreb])

1978   Les Grands Ballets Canadiens

1978   Pacific Northwest Ballet

1978   Royal Ballet

1978   Zurich Ballet (Ballett des Opernhauses Zurich)

1979   Dance Theatre of Harlem

1980   Cleveland San Jose Ballet

1980   National Ballet of Canada

1980   Pacific Northwest Ballet

1980   Washington Ballet

1981   Cleveland Ballet

1981   Eglevsky Ballet Company

1981   Milwaukee Ballet

1981   National Ballet Lisbon

1981   Royal Ballet

1981   San Francisco Ballet

1982   Basler Ballet (Switzerland)

1982   Houston Ballet

1982   Kansas City Ballet

1982   Les Grands Ballets Canadiens

1982   Matsuyama Ballet Company (Japan)

1982   Pittsburgh Ballet Theatre

1983   Ballet Municipal (Corporation Cultural de Santiago)

1983   CAPAB Ballet (Cape Performing Arts Board—Capetown, South Africa)

1983   Ballett der Deutschen Oper am Rhein (Dusseldorf, Germany)

1983   Ballett der Hamburgischen Staatsoper (Hamburg, Germany)

1983   Los Angeles Ballet

1983   Minnesota Dance Theater

1983   Star Dancers Ballet Company (Japan)

1984   National Ballet of Canada

1984   Philippine Ballet Theatre

1984   Tblisi Ballet (Russia)

1984   Universal Ballet Company (Korea)

1985   Atlanta Ballet

1985   Australian Ballet

1985   Ballet Dallas

1985   Ballet del Teatro Lirico Nacional (Madrid, Spain)

1985   Ballet du Nord (France)

1985   BalletMet (Columbus, Ohio)

1985   Boston Ballet

1985   Ballett der Deutschen Oper (Berlin)

1985   Dutch National Ballet

1985   Houston Ballet

1985   Minnesota Dance Theater

1985   Star Dancers Ballet Company (Japan)

1985   Teatro Colon (Buenos Aires, Argentina)

1986   Ballet de San Juan (Puerto Rico)

1986   Cleveland San Jose Ballet

1986   Dance Theatre of Harlem

1986   Kirov Ballet

1986   Pacific Northwest Ballet

1986   Pittsburgh Ballet Theatre

1986   Teatro alla Scala (Milan)

1986   Teresa Carreno-Ballet Caracas (Venezuela)

1986   Ballett der Wiener Staatsoper (Vienna)

1986   Washington Ballet

1987   Central Ballet

1987   Les Grands Ballets Canadiens

1988   Ballet du Louvre

1988   BalletMet (Columbus, Ohio)

1988   Dance Theatre of Harlem

1988   Matsuyama Ballet Company (Japan)

1988   Royal Ballet

1988   Star Dancers Ballet Company (Japan)

1988   Teatro Nacional de San Carlo

1988   Universal Ballet Company (Korea)

1988   Ballett der Wiener Staatsoper (Vienna)

1988   Washington Ballet

1989   Ballet de San Juan

1989   Ballet du Nord (France)

1989   Bellas Artes (Madrid, Spain)

1989   Cleveland San Jose Ballet

1989   Den Norske Opera [Ballet] (Norway)

1989   Dutch National Ballet

1989   Louisville Ballet

1989   National Ballet of Canada

1989   Pacific Northwest Ballet

1989   Paris Opera Ballet

1989   Philippine Ballet Theatre

1989   San Francisco Ballet

1989   Universal Ballet Company (Korea)

1990   Ballet du Nord (France)

1990   Banff Center (Alberta, Canada)

1990   Dance Theatre of Harlem

1990   Ballett der Deutschen Oper (Berlin)

1990   Ballett der Hamburgischen Staatsoper (Hamburg, Germany)

1990   Milwaukee Ballet

1990   National Ballet Lisbon

1990   Richmond Ballet, The State Ballet of Virginia

1990   Star Dancers Ballet Company (Japan)

1991   Ballet of Flanders/Koninklijk Ballet Van Vlaanderen/Royal Flemish Ballet

1991   Houston Ballet

1991   Miami City Ballet

1991   Royal Danish Ballet

1992   Bellas Artes (Madrid, Spain)

1992   Milwaukee Ballet

1992   Texas Ballet (formerly Fort Worth Dallas Ballet)

1992   Universal Ballet Company (Korea)

1993   Hartford Ballet

1993   Houston Ballet

1993   Les Ballets de Monte-Carlo

1993   Louisville Ballet

1993   Mussorgsky Ballet Theatre (St. Petersburg, Russia)

1993   National Ballet of Canada

1993   Pacific Northwest Ballet

1993   Pittsburgh Ballet Theatre

1993   Star Dancers Ballet Company (Japan)

1993   Washington Ballet

1994   BalletMet (Columbus, Ohio)

1994   Birmingham Royal Ballet/Sadler's Wells Royal Ballet

1994   Boston Ballet

1994   Cincinnati Ballet

1994   Miami City Ballet

1994   Pennsylvania Ballet

1995   Atlanta Ballet

1995   Ballett der Bayerischen Staatsoper (Munich)

1995   Colorado Ballet

1995   Hungarian National Ballet

1995   Hungarian State Opera

1995   Israel Ballet

1995   Milwaukee Ballet

1995   National Ballet Lisbon

1995   Paris Opera Ballet

1995   San Diego Ballet

1995   Star Dancers Ballet Company (Japan)

1995   Texas Ballet (formerly Fort Worth Dallas Ballet)

1995   Universal Ballet Company (Korea)

1996   Aspen Ballet

1996   Ballet Arizona

1996   Ballet Tech

1996   Ballett der Wiener Staatsoper (Vienna)

1996   Bellas Artes (Madrid, Spain)

1996   Dance Theatre of Harlem

1996   Dutch National Ballet

1996   Miami City Ballet

1996   National Ballet of Canada

1996   Philippine Ballet Theatre

1996   San Diego Ballet

1996   Southern Ballet Theatre

1997   American Repertory Ballet

1997   Ballet Austin

1997   Birmingham Royal Ballet/Sadler's Wells Royal Ballet

1997   Chautauqua Institution (New York)

1997   Cincinnati Ballet

1997   Cleveland San Jose Ballet

1997   Fundacao Municipal do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

1997   Hartford Ballet

1997   Nashville City Ballet

1997   National Ballet of China (Central)

1997   Pennsylvania Ballet

1997   Sacramento Ballet

1997   Virginia Ballet Theater

1997   Zurich Ballet (Ballett des Opernhauses Zurich)

1998   Alabama Ballet/Ballet South

1998   BalletMet (Columbus, Ohio)

1998   Carolina Ballet

1998   The Georgia Ballet

1998   Hartford Ballet

1998   Houston Ballet

1998   Kirov Ballet

1998   North Carolina Dance Theatre

1998   Pacific Northwest Ballet

1998   Royal Winnipeg Ballet

1998   Star Dancers Ballet Company (Japan)

1998   Utah Regional Ballet

1998   Washington Ballet

1999   Boston Ballet

1999   Hannover Ballet (Germany)

1999   The Metropolitan Opera Association (Kirov Ballet performances at the Met)

1999   Milwaukee Ballet

1999   National Ballet of Canada

1999   Oregon Ballet Theatre

1999   Richmond Ballet, The State Ballet of Virginia

1999   Royal Ballet

1999   San Francisco Ballet

2000   Ballet Arizona

2000   Dance Theatre of Harlem

2000   Kansas City Ballet

2000   Louisville Ballet

2000   Nashville City Ballet

2000   Pennsylvania Ballet

2000   Utah Regional Ballet

2000   Vancouver Goh Ballet

2001   Alabama Dance Theatre

2001   Atlanta Ballet

2001   Charleston Ballet Theatre

2001   Compania Nacional de Danza (Mexico City)

2001   Ballett der Deutschen Staatsoper (Berlin)

2001   Finnish National Ballet

2001   The Georgia Ballet

2001   Inland Pacific Ballet

2001   Israel Ballet

2001   Kirov Ballet

2001   National Ballet Lisbon

2001   New Mexico Ballet Company

2001   Pittsburgh Ballet Theatre

2001   Royal Ballet

2001   Royal Danish Ballet

2001   Texas Ballet (formerly Fort Worth Dallas Ballet)

2001   Utah Regional Ballet

2002   Fundacao Municipal do Rio de Janeiro

2002   Houston Ballet

2002   John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts

2002   Miami City Ballet

2002   National Ballet of China (Central)

2002   Den Norske Opera [Ballet] (Norway)

2002   Philippine Ballet Theatre

2002   Richmond Ballet, The State Ballet of Virginia

2002   Washington Ballet

2003   Ballet Concierto de Puerto Rico

2003   Ballet de Santiago

2003   Boca Ballet Theatre

2003   Cincinnati Ballet

2003   Croatian National Ballet

2003   Dance Theatre of Harlem

2003   Dutch National Ballet

2003   Paris Opera Ballet

2003   Royal Danish Ballet

2003   Suzanne Farrell Ballet

2004   Asami Maki Ballet (Akiko Tachibana Foundation)

2004   Ballet Arizona

2004   Ballet Chicago

2004   Finnish National Ballet

2004   Grand Theatre de Bordeaux

2004   Louisville Ballet

2004   Maine State Ballet (American Ballet East)

2004   National Ballet Lisbon

2004   National Opera and Ballet of Sofia

2004   Oregon Ballet Theatre

2004   Pacific Northwest Ballet

2004   Perm State Ballet (Russia)

2004   Pittsburgh Ballet Theatre

2004   San Francisco Ballet

2004   Slovene National Ballet Company

2004   Stuttgart Ballet

2004   Teatro Comunale (Florence, Italy)

2004   Texas Ballet (formerly Fort Worth Dallas Ballet)

2004   The Australian Ballet

2004   National Ballet of Canada

2005   Alabama Ballet/Ballet South

2005   Ballet Pacifica

2005   California Riverside Ballet

2005   Minnesota Dance Theatre and The Dance Institute

2005   North Carolina Dance Theatre

2005   Sacramento Ballet

2005   State Ballet of Georgia

2005   Virginia Ballet Theatre

2005   Washington Ballet

2006   Ballet Austin

2006   Boston Ballet

2006   Miami City Ballet

2006   Nashville City Ballet

2006   Georgia Ballet

2006   Tulsa Ballet Theatre

2007   Alberta Ballet

2007   Anaheim Ballet

2007   Ballet de Santiago

2007   Bolshoi Ballet

2007   Bratislava Ballet

2007   City Ballet of San Diego

2007   Contra Costa Ballet

2007   Gem City Ballet

2007   Longview Ballet Theater

2007   Los Angeles Ballet

2007   Orlando Ballet

2007   Saint Louis Ballet

2007   New National Theater Foundation

2008   Ballet West

2008   Brandywine Ballet

2008   Houston Ballet

2008   Royal Winnepeg Ballet

2008   Sadamatsu-Hamada Ballet Company

2008   Royal Ballet

2008   Atlanta Ballet

2008   Ballet San Jose

2008   Novosibirsk Ballet

2008   Sao Paulo Companhia de Dança

2008   Star Dancers Foundation

2009   Texas Ballet Theater

2009   Nevada Ballet Theatre

2009   Hungarian National Ballet

2009   Compania Nacional de Danza (Mexico City)

2009   Guangzhou Ballet Company

2010   Deutsche Oper am Rhein

2010   San Francisco Ballet

2010   Los Angeles Ballet

2010   Bolshoi Ballet

2010   Pacific Northwest Ballet

2010   Bucharest National Opera

2010   Royal Danish Ballet

2010   Singapore Dance Theatre

2010   Asami Maki Ballet Tokyo

2010   National Ballet of Canada

2011   Alberta Ballet Company

2011   Ballet Chicago

2011   Grand Rapids Ballet Company

2011   Het National Ballet

2011   Mariinsky Ballet (Kirov)

2011   Sacramento Ballet

2011   Slovene Nationa Ballet Company

2011   Suzanne Farrell Ballet

2011   West Australian Academy of Performing Arts

2012   Ballet Idaho

2012   Pittsburgh Ballet Theatre

2012   Royal Ballet Flanders

2012   Sarasota Ballet

2012   Theatre of Belarus

2012   West Australian Ballet

2013   Ballet Arizona

2013   Ballet Chicago

2013   Boston Ballet

2013   Miami City Ballet

2013   Richmond Ballet

2014   Ballet San Jose

2014   City Ballet of San Diego

2014   Deutsche Oper am Rhein

2014   Hong Kong Ballet

2014   Los Angeles Ballet

2014   Nashville Ballet

2014   Pennsylvania Ballet

2014   Royal Ballet

2014   Tbilisi Ballet

2014   Texas Ballet Theatre

2014   Theatro Municipal do Rio de Janeiro

2015   Birmingham Royal Ballet

2015   Guangzhou Ballet

2015   Joffrey Ballet

2015   Mariinsky Ballet

2015   Miami City Ballet

2015   National Theater Brno

2015   Nevada Ballet Theatre

2015   Opera of Poznan

2015   Perm State Ballet

2015   San Francisco Ballet

2015   Singapore Dance Theatre

2015   St. Louis Ballet

2015   Teatr Wielki (Poznan)

2015   Theatro Municipal de Rio de Janeiro

2015   Washington Ballet

2016   Argentine National Ballet

2016   Ballet Tucson

2016   BalletMet

2016   Korean National Ballet Company

2016   Miami City Ballet

2016   Michiko Matsumoto Ballet

2016   National Ballet of Japan

2016   New Mexico Ballet Company

2016   Norwegian National Ballet

2016   Oklahoma City Ballet

2016   Opera di Roma

2016   Oregon Ballet Theatre

2016   Pennsylvania Ballet

2016   Perm State Ballet

2016   Tbilisi Ballet

2016   Tulsa Ballet Theatre

2017   Astana Ballet Theatre

2017   Ballet Chicago

2017   Ballet West

2017   Colorado Ballet

2017   National Theatre Ballet of Prague

2017   Orlando Ballet

2017   Stanislavsky Ballet

2017   Star Dancers Ballet Company

2017   Suzanne Farrell Ballet

2017   Tbilisi Ballet

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