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84. APOLLON MUSAGÈTE (also called APOLLO MUSAGETES; APOLLO, LEADER OF THE MUSES; APOLLO; APOLO MUSAGETA)


Ballet in Two Scenes


Music And Book: By Igor Stravinsky (Apollo Musagetes, 1927-28, commissioned by Mrs. Elizabeth Sprague Coolidge, 1927).

Choreography: By George Balanchine.

Production: Scenery and costumes by André Bauchant. (New costumes, by Chanel, 1929.) Scenery executed by Prince A. Schervashidze; costumes executed under the direction of Mme A. Youkine.

Premiere: June 12, 1928, Diaghilev's Ballets Russes, Théâtre Sarah-Bernhardt, Paris. Conductor: Igor Stravinsky. Violinist: Marcel Darrieux.

Cast: Apollo, Serge Lifar; Terpsichore, Alice Nikitina (alternating with Alexandra Danilova); Calliope, Lubov Tchernicheva; Polyhymnia, Felia Doubrovska; 2 Goddesses; Leto, Mother of Apollo, Sophie Orlova.
SCENE I: THE BIRTH OF APOLLO. SCENE 2: Apollo; PAS D'ACTION (Apollo and Muses): Calliope; Polyhymnia; Terpsichore; Apollo; PAS DE DEUX (Apollo and Terpsichore); CODA; APOTHEOSIS (Apollo and Muses).

Note: SCENE I: Leto's labor, and the birth and youth of Apollo; two goddesses present him with a lute and teach him music. SCENE 2: Apollo plays the lute and dances. The three Muses enter; he presents each with an emblem of her art: Calliope, receiving the stylus and tablet, personifies poetry and rhythm; Polyhymnia, finger to lips, represents mime; Terpsichore combines both poetry and gesture in dance and is honored by Apollo. He dances a solo variation and a pas de deux with Terpsichore. APOTHEOSIS: Apollo and the Muses join in a final dance and ascend toward Parnassus.
Stravinsky conceived and composed Apollo Musagetes as a ballet; the music was commissioned for a festival of contemporary music in Washington, D. C., with choreography by Adolph Bolm. Balanchine's production was his first collaboration with the composer; he later described the choreography as the turning point in his creative life.

Revisions: 1928, Ballets Russes: Variation for Alexandra Danilova (alternating as Terpsichore in the original production) differed from Nikitina's. 1978, Second International Dance Festival: SCENE I omitted. 1979, New York City Ballet: For a revival with Mikhail Baryshnikov as Apollo, SCENE I and Apollo's first variation omitted; ending of APOTHEOSIS rechoreographed to conclude with earlier tableau of Muses posing beside Apollo in arabesque, visually suggesting the sun and its rays, instead of ascending Mount Parnassus. 1980, New York City Ballet: Apollo's first variation restored.

New Productions by Balanchine Companies: 1937, American Ballet: Scenery and costumes by Stewart Chaney. 1941, American Ballet Caravan: Scenery and costumes by Tomás Santa Rosa. 1951, New York City Ballet: Costumes by Karinska. 1957, New York City Ballet: Danced in practice clothes with minimal scenery; scenery omitted entirely since 1979.

Film: 1989, Seahorse Films, Dancing for Mr. B (PAS DE DEUX [excerpt]).

Video/DVD: 1995, Nonesuch, The Balanchine Library: Dancing for Mr. B (PAS DE DEUX [excerpt]); 1996, Nonesuch, The Balanchine Library: The Balanchine Celebration, Part One (complete 1979 version [1993]); 2002, George Balanchine Foundation, Music Dances: Balanchine Choreographs Stravinsky (PAS D'ACTION: Calliope's variation); 2004, Kultur, Balanchine (PAS DE DEUX, CODA); 2006, VAI, Jacques d'Amboise: Portrait of a Great American Dancer (complete [1960]).

Archival Video: George Balanchine Foundation Interpreters Archive (PAS D'ACTION: Terpsichore's variation; PAS DE DEUX), 1998.

See also: 133.8   176   198   284  

Television:    hide...
1960(CBC [Montreal], L'Heure du Concert)
1962excerpts (CBC [Montreal])
1962(BBC [London])
1963excerpts (NBC, Bell Telephone Hour)
1966(Norddeutscher Rundfunk [Germany]; rebroadcast 1982 BBC [London], "Stravinsky and the Dance")
1967rehearsal and performance (BBC [London])
1969(CBC [Montreal], L'Heure du Concert)
1972rehearsal excerpts (PBS, "A Stravinsky Portrait")
1973(French television, ORTF, Les Reflets de la danse)
ca. 1974(German television; rebroadcast 1976, BBC [London])
1979pas de deux (BBC [London], The Magic of Dance)
1980excerpts, rehearsal, performance (CBS, "A Portrait of Jacques d'Amboise")
1982(PBS, Live from Lincoln Center, "Stravinsky and Balanchine: Genius Has a Birthday")
1984excerpts (PBS, Dance in America, "Balanchine")
1984pas de deux (BBC [London], "Dancer")
1988(PBS, Dance in America, "Baryshnikov Dances Balanchine")
1989(BBC [London], "Baryshnikov Dances Balanchine")
1993excerpts (PBS, Dance in America, "The Balanchine Celebration")
Source notes:    show...
Stagings:    hide...

1931   Royal Danish Ballet

1937   American Ballet Ensemble (1935-1938—resident Metropolitan Opera company)

1941   American Ballet Caravan

1942   Teatro Colon (Buenos Aires, Argentina)

1943   Ballet Theatre (in 1957 became American Ballet Theatre)

1946   Sociedad Pro-Arte Musical (Cuba)

1947   Paris Opera Ballet

1948   Ballet Alicia Alonso (Cuba, 1948-55)

late 1940s?   La Plata (Teatro Argentino Ballet)

1950   Ballet Nacional (Alberto Alonso Company, Cuba, 1950-51)

1951   New York City Ballet

1955   San Francisco Ballet

1958   Civic Ballet Society (Washington, D.C.; disbanded)

1959   Ballett der Wiener Staatsoper (Vienna)

1960   Uruguay (S.O.D.R.E., Servicio Oficial de Difusion Radio Electrica [Ballet])

1962   Ballett der Hamburgischen Staatsoper

1965   Boston Ballet

1965   Halina Biernacka Ballet (renamed Sao Paulo Chamber Ballet)

1966   Den Norske Opera [Ballet] (Norway)

1966   Dutch National Ballet (Amsterdam)

1966   Royal Ballet

1967   Stuttgart Ballet

1967   Ballett der Wiener Staatsoper (Vienna)

1968   Halina Biernacka Ballet (renamed Sao Paulo Chamber Ballet)

1969   Ballett der Deutschen Oper (Berlin)

1969   Geneva Ballet (Grand Theatre de Geneve [Ballet])

1970   Birmingham Royal Ballet/Sadler's Wells Royal Ballet

1970   Teatro Comunale-Florence

1971   Ballett der Deutschen Oper am Rhein (Dusseldorf)

1971   Teatro alla Scala (Milan)

1973   Teatro dell' Opera di Roma

1973   Wisconsin Ballet

1974   Ballett der Bayerischen Staatsoper (Munich)

1974   Nureyev and Friends

1974   Royal Flemish Ballet (Koninklijk Ballet Van Vlaanderen)

1975   Teatro Massimo (Palermo)

1976   Turino Opera

1977   Hungarian National Ballet

1977   Paris Opera Ballet

1977   Stora Teaterns Balett (Gothenburg, Sweden)

1978   Second International Dance Festival

1978   Teatro Massimo Bellini (Catania, Sicily)

1979   Teatro Communale Ballet (Bologna, Italy)

1981   Ballets de San Juan (Puerto Rico)

1981   Ballett der Bayerischen Staatsoper (Munich)

1981   Dutch National Ballet

1981   Royal Ballet

1982   Ballet de l'Opera du Rhin (Strasbourg, France)

1982   Ballett der Deutschen Oper am Rhein (Dusseldorf)

1982   Ballett der Deutschen Staatsoper (East Berlin)

1984   Ballet de Nancy (France)

1984   Ballet du Nord (France)

1984   Chicago City Ballet (Closed)

1985   Dutch National Ballet

1985   Universal Ballet Company (Korea)

1986   NAPAC Ballet (Natal Performing Arts Council—Durban, South Africa)

1987   Caracas New World Ballet

1987   Miami City Ballet

1987   National Ballet Lisbon

1987   Royal Swedish Ballet

1987   Teatro Nacional de San Carlo

1988   Ballet British Columbia

1988   Ballet Chicago

1988   Ballet du Louvre

1988   Cincinnati Ballet

1988   English National Ballet (London Festival)

1988   Stora Teaterns Balett (Gothenburg, Sweden)

1988   Matsuyama Ballet Company (Japan)

1988   Royal Ballet

1988   Teatro Nacional de San Carlo

1988   Teresa Carreno-Ballet Caracas

1989   Texas Ballet (formerly Fort Worth Dallas Ballet)

1989   Washington Ballet

1990   Ballet Chicago

1990   Ballet du Nord (France)

1990   Ballett der Deutschen Oper (Berlin)

1990   Ballett der Deutschen Staatsoper (Berlin)

1990   Ballett der Wiener Staatsoper (Vienna)

1990   Stora Teaterns Balett (Gothenburg, Sweden)

1990   Miami City Ballet

1991   The Australian Ballet

1991   Den Norske Opera [Ballet] (Norway)

1991   Kansas City Ballet

1991   Kirov Ballet

1991   National Ballet Lisbon

1991   Pittsburgh Ballet Theatre

1991   Theatre & Philharmonie Essen (Germany)

1992   Ballet Chicago

1992   Cleveland San Jose Ballet

1992   Dutch National Ballet

1992   Miami City Ballet

1992   Ottawa Ballet

1992   Richmond Ballet, The State Ballet of Virginia

1992   Royal Danish Ballet

1992   Texas Ballet (formerly Fort Worth Dallas Ballet)

1992   Washington Ballet

1993   Atlanta Ballet

1993   Ballet de San Juan

1993   Bellas Artes (Madrid, Spain)

1993   Boston Ballet

1993   Montana Ballet

1993   Pacific Northwest Ballet

1993   Paris Opera Ballet

1993   Royal Ballet

1993   Teresa Carreno-Ballet Caracas

1994   Louisville Ballet

1994   Paris Opera Ballet

1994   Pittsburgh Ballet Theatre

1994   Theatre & Philharmonie Essen (Germany)

1995   Ballett der Bayerischen Staatsoper (Munich)

1995   Colorado Ballet

1995   Dance Alive! State Touring Company of Florida

1995   Miami City Ballet

1995   Texas Ballet (formerly Fort Worth Dallas Ballet)

1996   American Ballet Theatre

1996   Asami Maki Ballet (Japan)

1996   Ballett der Wiener Staatsoper (Vienna)

1996   Grand Theatre de Bordeaux

1996   Dutch National Ballet

1996   Les Ballets de Monte-Carlo

1996   Paris Opera Ballet

1996   Pennsylvania Ballet

1996   Pittsburgh Ballet Theatre

1996   Royal Danish Ballet

1996   Teatro Comunale (Florence, Italy)

1996   Texas Ballet (formerly Fort Worth Dallas Ballet)

1996   Wiesbaden

1997   The Australian Ballet

1997   Cleveland San Jose Ballet

1997   Hartford Ballet

1997   Les Grands Ballets Canadiens

1997   Miami City Ballet

1997   Santa Fe Festival Ballet

1998   Diablo Ballet

1998   Kirov Ballet

1998   Louisville Ballet

1998   Sarasota Ballet of Florida

1998   Teatro Colon (Buenos Aires, Argentina)

1999   Aterballetto-Centro Regionale della Danza (Reggio Emilia, Italy)

1999   Ballet de l'Opera du Rhin (Strasbourg, France)

1999   Dance Theatre of Harlem

1999   The Metropolitan Opera Association (Kirov Ballet performance at the Met)

1999   National Ballet of Canada

1999   Pennsylvania Ballet

1999   Richmond Ballet, The State Ballet of Virginia

2000   Ballet Arizona

2000   Ballet Arlington

2000   National Ballet Lisbon

2000   Teatro dell' Opera di Roma

2001   Aspen Santa Fe Ballet

2001   Boca Ballet Theatre

2001   English National Ballet (London Festival)

2001   National Ballet of Canada

2001   Stuttgart Ballet

2002   Ballett Mainz

2002   Channel Island Ballet (formerly Ballet Wisconsin)

2002   Oper Leipzig

2002   Pennsylvania Ballet

2002   Teatro Comunale (Florence, Italy)

2003   Birmingham Royal Ballet/Sadler's Wells Royal Ballet

2003   Caramoor

2003   Croatian National Ballet

2003   Milwaukee Ballet

2003   New Orleans Ballet Theatre

2003   Royal Ballet

2003   Suzanne Farrell Ballet

2004   Ballet Arizona

2004   Ballet du Capitole de Toulouse

2004   Houston Ballet

2004   National Ballet Lisbon

2004   Richmond Ballet

2004   San Francisco Ballet

2004   Stuttgart Ballet

2004   Joffrey Ballet

2004   National Ballet of Canada

2005   American Ballet Theatre

2005   Ballet National de Marseille

2005   Diablo Ballet

2005   Minnesota Ballet

2005   New Orleans Ballet Theatre

2005   Pacific Northwest Ballet

2005   Staatsoper Unter den Linden

2005   State Ballet of Georgia

2005   Teatro dell' Opera di Roma

2005   Scottish Ballet

2006   Ballet Arlington

2006   Birmingham Royal Ballet

2006   City Ballet of San Diego

2007   Los Angeles Ballet

2007   Norwegian National Ballet

2007   Oregon Ballet Theatre

2007   Paris Opera Ballet

2007   Sacramento Ballet

2007   Australian Ballet

2007   Zurich Ballet

2008   Absolute Ballet

2008   Royal Ballet of Flanders

2008   Carolina Ballet

2008   Suzanne Farrell Ballet

2008   Novosibirsk Ballet

2009   Suzanne Farrell Ballet

2009   Kansas City Ballet

2009   City Ballet of San Diego

2009   Teatro alla Scala (Milan)

2010   Houston Ballet

2010   Compania Nacional de Danza (Mexico City)

2010   Boston Ballet

2010   North Carolina Dance Theatre

2010   Festival Ballet Providence

2010   Paris Opera Ballet

2011   Opera National de Bordeaux

2011   Pacific Northwest Ballet

2012   American Ballet Theatre

2012   Ballet Concierto de Puerto Rico

2012   Bolshoi Ballet

2012   Carolina Ballet

2012   Dresden SemperOpera Ballet

2012   English National Ballet

2012   Miami City Ballet

2012   Royal Danish Ballet

2012   Slovene National Ballet

2012   Tulsa Ballet

2013   New National Theatre Tokyo

2013   Royal Ballet

2014   City Ballet of San Diego

2014   Perm State Opera and Ballet Theatre

2014   Sacramento Ballet

2014   Tbilisi Ballet

2015   American Ballet Theatre

2015   Bolshoi Ballet

2015   Diablo Ballet

2015   Festival Ballet Providence

2015   Mariinsky Ballet

2015   Perm State Ballet

2015   Sarasota Ballet

2016   Ballet Arizona

2016   Ballet Augsburg

2016   Het Nationale Ballet

2016   Perm State Ballet

2017   Ballet Nacional del Peru

2017   Charlotte Ballet (NCDT)

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